Mobile application development research paper

  1. Development of mobile application through design-based research | Emerald Insight
  2. mobile tracking system research papers
  3. An ISM Approach for Modeling the Issues and Factors of Mobile App Development
  4. Mobile application development research paper

Development of mobile application through design-based research | Emerald Insight

These icons were also used in this mobile application to maintain the OUSL identity. These features could be considered as contextual attributes of mobile learning. Certain new icons were added to represent functional specific requirements associated with the mobile application e. Menu, Note, etc. Typical icons generally represented in global community were used to represent images and settings.

The layout of the program control, learner control and specific icons is illustrated in Figure 5.

This mobile application integrated a video, enriching the existing content using the affordances of mobile technologies and designed as an activity activity, based on the video. Generally, OUSL students do not watch videos, unless they are compulsory or integrated in the course materials. Thus, research and practice were considered in the design and development of this mobile application in line with the guidelines of the design-based research Figure 6.

In addition to the instructional design features, adaptive technologies were also incorporated in the mobile application considering the needs of the heterogeneous nature of OUSL learners Jayatilleke, Table III illustrates these features. Learner has the opportunity to adjust the size of the font Figure 7 and images, taking notes, highlighting the text and copying and pasting facility were some of the adaptive technologies used in this application.

The next section provides the detail account of the evaluation and testing phase of the mobile application. In the third phase, this mobile application was regularly tested through formative evaluation which was an integral part of the design methodology. It helped to judge strengths and weakness of the innovation while still at its developing stage, for the purpose of revising the instruction. As mentioned earlier, second and third phases conducted concurrently and could not be separated during the research process.

Certain features were added after getting the feedback from various stakeholders during the testing phase. In this phase, appropriate research methods were identified, collected and analyzed data to answer the research questions. Qualitative methods were used in gathering data since design and development of the innovation need in-depth analysis of the innovation.

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  • Mobile App Development Process - An In-depth Overview.

A research diary, committee meeting records, observational sheets of the users while using the tablet interview schedule for users, and checklists for error identification were used as data collection tools. Content developers of these three sessions four females , educational technologists two females and two males , researchers three females and one male and one developer male were the members of the research and development team from the inception of the research project.

Purposeful sample was used to select the subjects as novice users where they have not followed these courses before to test this innovative mobile application. All of them have smartphones and comfortable of using tablet computers. The second and third phases were carried out simultaneously with regular meetings with the developer and other stakeholders through testing of the mobile application. In these meetings, the application was evaluated by five groups of stakeholders: content experts to validate the content, educational technologists to check the alignment of technical and pedagogical features, novice users to check the overall effectiveness of the application for learning purposes, developer to develop the application, modify it with the feedback and check the ease of usage and researchers to identify the impact of this innovation.

Novice users were briefed about the purpose and asked them to go through the mobile application. The lead researcher observed and made notes using observational sheets while users were explored the mobile application. At the end of the product evaluation, researcher asked questions using a structured interview schedule about their perceptions of this mobile application, their likes, dislikes, challenges and suggestions for improvement.

These viewpoints were categorized using content analysis to identify the major themes. The entire development of the application was through eight iterations where feedback from different stakeholders at different stages was integrated to the OUSL MLearn system. First iteration was to develop the initial prototype for a session. Then three iterations were focused to develop the framework to design the entire system architecture for the entire university, considering faculty, departments and program requirements.

Last four iterations were testing the developed prototype with additional requirements, adding pedagogical features along with the interactive features to the course structure and testing with novice users and content developers. At the end of the formative evaluation, conclusions were drawn based on the findings. All the stakeholders perceived benefits of the mobile application as an effective tool for learning.

Many challenges were expressed by different stakeholders and will be discussed in the results and discussion section. This is very important phase in design-based research. Unless documentation and reflection, the generation of design principles and guidelines could not be constructed and the purpose of using design-based research is not fully achieved.

Ma and Harmon recommended to provide two sets of principles based on the research study. The other set of principles for researchers who are interested in conducting design-based research on how to conduct design-based research based on the reflections on the research methodology. In this current study, reflections were part of the whole process and not only restricted to the documentation phase.

Researchers reflected the research processes in all phases from phases 2 to 4 and went back and forth while documenting the process in order to generate principles. At the end of each development phase, the results were re-examined, reflected upon and used for further enrichment, producing a continuous cycle of design-reflection-design. So, formative evaluation was integrated in the testing phase of the design-based research and the results were used to improve the system to make the instruction more effective and efficient.

In this study, phases 2, 3 and 4 were all connected and could not be separated as distinct phases. Having gone through the reflections, the researchers felt the design-based research is very appropriate in designing and developing technology based innovations as user testing is part of the development process. Since both researchers and practitioners were involved from the beginning, their contributions were very useful in conceptualizing the solution within a theoretical framework.

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The following design principles were derived from the findings of the research study for mobile application. Team can discuss these strategies and identify best solutions in order to reduce the development time of the innovation. Research team should consider the existing research and practices in the local context in order to develop cultural sensitive solutions as learning is contextual and situated.

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Some of the research studies conducted in western world may not directly applicable to eastern cultures. This study was influenced by the research findings of earlier studies conducted at the OUSL with three groups of culturally diverse groups of learners Sri Lankans, Pakistanis and Mauritians , where they interact via learning management system for seven weeks Jayatilleke and Gunawardena, ; Jayatilleke, Kulasekara, Kumarasinha and Gunawardena, Instructions should be integrated in the mobile application as animated learning objects considering the user needs; especially, if the application is designed for open and distance learners.

When developing mobile solutions, alternative technological strategies and adaptive technologies should be designed in order to accommodate diverse learners. Adaptive technologies should also be integrated in the mobile application to accommodate differently abled learners to empower them while making them more inclusive in the mainstream education. Institutional leadership for direction, guidance and providing mechanism for establishing support structures are crucial in order for the sustenance and adoption of innovative mobile solution.

Otherwise, diffusion of innovations will be observed only at the individual level and gradually die down. This study adapted the model proposed by Ma and Harmon and was also influenced by the research of Keskin and Kuzu However, researchers of the current study had to modify the order of certain guidelines to suit the context and the user needs.

An ISM Approach for Modeling the Issues and Factors of Mobile App Development

Even Ma and Harmon , p. Hence, following guiding principles are proposed for the researchers who are interested in conducting design-based research based on the reflections of this research and development team. Identifying the purpose and research questions for a development iteration are very crucial in the design-based research as they provide the focus for the study.


Thus, they should be included in the first phase of the research study — analysis of a practical problem refer Section 4. Identifying the importance of research at the beginning of the development of innovation of project upfront and decision should be taken to integrate research while developing solutions at the beginning prior to the development of the solution and give fullest attention to the research methodology along with the development phases of the solution. Educational technologist should be included as a researcher in the design-based research team to provide guidance, direction and to facilitate theory-driven research process and thereby enabling theory-building outcomes of the innovation in an effective manner.

The views expressed by the novel users indicated that the developed mobile application was generally efficient, simple to learn, easy to navigate, appealing and engaging. It was also pedagogically constructive as the content and the tools used in the application were useful from the perspective of both the content experts and the educational technologists. Thus, accomplishing the primary goal of this research study by providing effective instruction through mobile learning. It was also found that the developed mobile learning system was appropriate to the overall purpose of the university, could be served as a mobile learning system for the entire university and also could be used as an academic support system for the OUSL from the perspective of the developer.

Having gone through the reflection process and analyzing the qualitative data obtained by all the stakeholders using various tools, the challenges in implementing the MLearn for the entire university were identified using content analysis of the data.

Mobile application development research paper

The categorized themes are illustrated in Table IV. Having gone through this process, it was felt that the design-based research build on the principles of stakeholder centredness was effective in developing mobile learning application. This was due to the fact that the researchers and the practitioners were actively involved throughout the whole process and supported each other to produce an effective mobile application. The framework used in this study embeded the evaluation and testing of the solution phase Phase 3 within the development of the solution phase Phase 2 as these two phases are interconnected and run concurrently.

Owing to the iterative cycles of the design-based research enabled the development of an effective mobile solution through several refinements based on existing research and practices. The findings of the evaluation of the mobile application showed challenges with respect to development time, high production costs, technical and organizational issues, workload of academics and necessity of providing technical support both to remote students and faculty. Therefore, establishing adequate support structures for both teachers and students are essential for the sustenance of these innovative practices.

This finding is in line with Montreux et al.

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This application will be further evaluated through summative evaluation with actual students to assess the effectiveness of the mobile learning system to complete the design of the system fully. The design and development of any instructional material depend on the target audience, the subject content and the organizational culture of the institution context. As such, the findings of this study may not have a universal value; however, these findings may throw light on some of the pedagogical, technological, social interaction and contextual attributes including cultural dimensions that have to considered when designing mobile applications.

It also provides guiding principles for designing both mobile solutions and on how to conduct design-based research in mobile learning. Animated Instructions proving study guidance on how to use the mobile device. Program control, learner control and specific icons. Anderson , T. Ausubel , D. Baglione , S. Barab , S. Bowers , C. Chen , S. Clark , J. Cochrane , T. Cole , R.