- Guidelines for Master's Proposals and Theses | Graduate
- What Is a Research Proposal and Why Is It Written?
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- Literature reviews - Example 1
- How to write a dissertation proposal
Which ever style, find its guide booklet and study well. A sample paper can show you all the rules as followed by someone else. You can see what it is supposed to look like when it all comes together. Get as many as you think you need. They should not cost you much if anything at all. This shows you exactly where everything you need to include is expected to go. When you are confused, refer to the template instructions. Friends can be extremely useful in this situation.
Ask someone to explain the hard parts to you. They may be the easy parts to them and you will never know for sure unless you swallow your pride, abandon reservations and ask. This may not be the easiest option. Many people look on the completion of the dissertation with pride and would feel like cheaters for getting any help even with something so minor. The thing is, formatting can b done by anyone. The literature review is only reflective of the hard work you have already put in to structure your proposal. Hiring help does not in any way diminish that. Professional thesis writing service: Hire an expert PhD holder to get your thesis done.
In the body of your review, ensure that your arguments are presented clearly and that you link these arguments with the literature. Is there a scholar that agrees with your view? Say so, in a way that the reader will understand easily. This demonstrates that you are very familiar with the academic research in your field. Remember to also make note of any views that do not agree with your position; excluding these arguments will reduce the methodological robustness of your piece. Instead, try to paraphrase quotations and only use direct quotes if it really helps to illustrate your argument.
If your literature review forms part of a broader research proposal, reiterate the gaps in the literature here, and clearly state how your proposed research will fill these gaps. Make recommendations for future research in this section too, which demonstrates your analytical skills and will score you some extra points. You have options here — you can choose to organise the content of your work based on a chronological method, based on themes, trends or methodology, or based on arguments. To structure the body of work chronologically, you will have to organise your sources based on when they were published.
Guidelines for Master's Proposals and Theses | Graduate
A limitation of this approach is that it inhibits continuity in your arguments and in some instances, can undermine the coherence of your work. Use with caution. Say you were trying to convey the debates on European migration policy, you might want to start by writing something along these lines:. They specifically espouse a perspective based on a human rights approach…".
This approach also leaves room for you to insert your voice into the literature. Consider this statement:. Using this technique also allows you to introduce additional literature that supports your position.
What Is a Research Proposal and Why Is It Written?
Another way of organising your content is according to theme; or sub-themes, if your review focuses on one overarching topic. This method of organisation still allows you to present an overview of any polemical debates within these sub-themes. A thematic review can easily shift between chronological periods within each sub-section too. This method is particularly evident in introductory sections whereby researchers may simply want to state that a particular subject has been mostly studied from a qualitative or quantitative perspective they will often then cite a number of scholars or studies to support this claim.
In scientific reviews however, a methodological approach may form the basis of the discussions in the body. If this is the case for you, focus on the methods used by various researchers. How did they go about answering a particular research question? Were there any limitations to this method? If so, what method s would have been better? The body of your research may also include additional sections that do not necessarily form a part of its organisational structure.
Literature reviews - Example 1
It may also focus on historical considerations. You could include a short methodology section that details the approach you used in selecting and analysing your sources. Write the paragraphs of the body Once you have settled on the approach to writing your body, you must now write each of its paragraphs in a way that is in keeping with academic conventions. Consider this paragraph from a literature review about stakeholder participation for environmental management, to clarify the discussion that follows:. Despite the rhetoric and the concerns that have been expressed, there have been few attempts to investigate the validity of the many claims that have been made for stake-holder participation Webler, ; Beierle, ; Brody, ; Blackstock et al.
The few attempts that have been made have tended to focus on evaluating the process rather than the outcomes e. Beierle, ; Renn et al. This may be partly due to the challenge of selecting appropriate evaluation criteria and data collection methods. Blackstock et al. However, this is not straightforward. Webler and Tuler found strong differences of opinion between participants that they selected from ten case studies, about what constituted a "good" participatory process.
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Source: Reed, M. Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biological conservation, 10 , pp. As the example above suggests, a dissertation literature review must be written using a formal and academic style. Also, note how sources have been grouped according to both arguments and themes.
Remember we noted that the process of grouping sources in the body of your literature review is never a linear one? You will often use a combination of the approaches that we have discussed. Ensure that your writing is concise, coherent and devoid of any personal or strong language. There are exceptions at post-graduate level or generally — like when you have conducted your own primary research or published your work widely — which give you the academic authority to boldly make claims.
Remember also to generally use present tense when referring to opinions and theories although in the context of specific research experiments, the use of the past tense is better.
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Useful linking words and phrases include: similarly, there are parallels, in convergence with…. When there is disagreement, you may want to use any of the following: However, conversely, on the other hand, diverges from, antithetical to, differential from…. Write the conclusion The conclusion of a dissertation literature review should always include a summary of the implications of the literature, which you should then link to your argument or general research question. The overall structure of your literature review will be largely based on your research area and the academic conventions that are in line with it.
How to write a dissertation proposal
Nevertheless, there are some essential steps that apply across all disciplines and that you should ensure you follow:. Do not simply describe the opinions of writers Analyse, analyse, analyse, and ensure that your analysis is critical what have the writers missed; where does your opinion sit with theirs, etc. Structure the body of your argument using various techniques Your structure should be organised based on thematic areas, key debates or controversial issues, and according to methodological approaches. Keep your review dynamic, but coherent. Remember to identify literature gaps and link this to your own research.
Use ample evidence This is extremely important and forms the very essence of a dissertation literature review. You must refer to various sources when making a point; see the sample paragraph above for an example of this. Your arguments and interpretation of a research topic must be backed by evidence. Do not make baseless claims, as a literature review is an academic piece of writing and not an opinion piece. Be very selective Not every piece of research has to be reviewed. If you are determined to show that you aware of the available literature out there, try writing techniques such as: There is robust literature available concerning the migration patterns of Syrian refugees.
Notable works include: X , y , Z Once you have acknowledged these works, you do not have to review them in detail. Be selective about the sources that you will discuss in detail in your review. Do not rely too much on direct quotes Only use them to emphasise a point. Instead, highlight the importance of that author in your research and move on. If you need to keep going back to the work of that author, then you need to link those discussions with your work.
Be critical. Make your voice heard Yes, the whole point of the literature review is to provide a critical analysis and summary of the viewpoints out there, but a critical analysis does include the fact that you need to make your opinion known in the context of the literature. Note how skilfully, in the earlier sample paragraph by Reed , he weaves his opinions with references. Read back over the sample and try to perfect this skill. Ensure that you reference your work correctly And make sure you use the appropriate referencing style.
For more help on this, click here. The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation. How to write a dissertation literature review: an in-depth guide. What is a literature review? Think about the basic structure first. Pay extra attention to the structure of the body. Say you were trying to convey the debates on European migration policy, you might want to start by writing something along these lines: "While scholars such as X argue that migration policies must be made more stringent to counteract the increased flow of Syrian refugees to Europe, other scholars such as Y offer a divergent perspective.
They specifically espouse a perspective based on a human rights approach…" This approach also leaves room for you to insert your voice into the literature.